Archives of Health Science and Research
Original Article

The Effect of 3 Different Local Cold Applications on Pain and Ecchymosis in Subcutaneous Heparin Injections


Department of Nursing, Eastern Mediterranean University Faculty of Health Sciences, Famagusta, North Cyprus


Department of Fundamental Nursing, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing, Istanbul, Türkiye

Arch Health Sci Res 2023; 10: 160-167
DOI: 10.5152/ArcHealthSciRes.2023.23016
Read: 171 Downloads: 116 Published: 17 October 2023

Objective: The study aimed to examine the e"ect of 3 di"erent local cold application methods on pain intensity and ecchymosis in subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin.

Methods: A randomized controlled experimental study. Participants consisted of patients who were hospitalized and administered subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin. The sample consisted of 54 patients who applied 3 cold applications (thermomechanical analgesia, local coolant spray, and cool-pack). Pain intensity was measured with the visual analog scale and the ecchymosis sizes were measured with the Opsite-Flexigrid Measurement Tool. This study was created in accordance with CONSORT Statement Checklist.

Results: The rate of the pain experience (11%) and the mean of pain intensity had the lowest rate/level in the “local cool-pack” application (P < .05). Similarly, the rate of ecchymosis (24.1%) and the mean of ecchymosis had the lowest rate/level in the “local cool-pack” application (P < .05). In the control application, the rate of ecchymosis development at the 24th, 48th, and 72nd hours after subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin injection was found to be signi#cantly higher than in other cold application methods (P < .05).

Conclusion: This study provides the information that cool-pack application is the most e"ective method among the di"erent cold applications used in reducing the complications related to subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin applications.

Cite this article as: Cevheroğlu S, Büyükyilmaz F. The e"ect of 3 di"erent local cold applications on pain and ecchymosis in subcutaneous heparin injections. Arch Health Sci Res. 2023;10(3):160-167.

EISSN 2687-4644